It is a fact worthy of notice, that while every effort is making by public men and the Press, to bring almost every part of the Province into notice, that a studied neglect seems to have passed over the District of Hastings, and in fact the whole of the Bay of Quinte. We should be sorry to attribute this to jealousy or dread, that from its situation, Hastings, if generally known, would take the lead in the Province, and that resting upon its own natural resources, it would bid fair one day to become a successful Rival for the Seat of Government of the Province. These facts may enter the minds of such wise speculators, who have watched the progress of towns and villages; and although unwilling to confess the superiority of Hastings, yet conviction tells them, that such is the fact and that others as wise as themselves, may, and doubtless will ere long detect all this. But if this neglect was studied on the part of others, it does not therefore follow that we should sanction it by remaining silent: we have therefore determined to give some little account of this District, so that it may stand a fair chance with the remaining portion of the Province. We are fully satisfied that we cannot do the subject justice; yet, we think, silence were worse on our part, than an exhibition of our inability to lay before the capitalist Emigrant a perfect account of all the resources of the District of Hastings and the Bay of Quinte.
The district of Hastings is situated on the southern bank of the bay of Quinte, upon which it has a front of about 30 miles. The principal townships within the District, are Sydney, Thurlow, Tyendinaga, Huntingdon, Rawdon, Hungerford, Madoc, Marmora, Elziver, and the Mohawk lands, all of which are settled by respectable farmers, many of whom by their industry and cultivation of the soil have raised themselves to opulence and independence.
When this county was first settled, it was selected by those who resorted to it , from its fertility of soil and beauties of landscape. There is no portion of the Province better adapted for agriculture, commerce and manufactures than this District; the lands are equal to any in the province for strength of soil, convenience of water and beauty of timber. There are two streams of some importance in this district, streams which are of themselves sources of immense wealth, down which are floated large quantities of all descriptions of lumber, and upon which are situated many mills moved by the hydraulic power of the streams. The names of these rivers at the Moira of Belleville, and the Shannon in Shannonville. They both discharge themselves into the bay of Quinte, and have their source at about sixty miles from the bay. The rear townships are exceedingly well watered, by several small streams which are tributary to those already mentioned, and mill sites are numerous in every direction of the district, and the farmer need have no apprehension as the facilities which will be afforded him of grinding his wheat and other grain. So that every advantage is presented to the cultivator of the soil to bring his produce to a good market at the shipping port of Belleville, now the district town, he will always be able to obtain the best prices for his produce.
Several Steam Boats, and other craft navigate the Bay. The former ply daily between the head of the Bay, and Prescott on the St. Lawrence; making Belleville their principal port on their way up, by which a speedy and easy mode of travelling is afforded from the Upper to the Lower Province or to any of the intermediate ports of Belleville and Prescott.
The district is well situated for the general purposes of agriculture. The slope which the surface has is sufficient and suitable to obtain a complete drainage. For the most part, the ground rises from the banks of the bay of Quinte, and the prospects from the bay are very picturesque and beautiful. It is a well cultivated district, and there is no better soil in any part of the American continent, it is fat and fertile, and with labour and cultivation will never fail.
The shape of the district is nearly square, except on the side of Hungerford where a small portion projects, from east to west it is about 30 miles, from north to south about 35 miles, making a surface of 1050 square miles or 762,300 acres. The lands now remaining unimproved in the district, are principally owned by the Government and the Canada Company; and it is a well known fact that the best and most valuable lands owned by the Canada company, are in the county of Hastings, and that the company fully aware of this, are not very eager to throw them into market, but keep them back as a reserve, and endeavour to get off their lands of less value and in other districts. Thus much for a general view of the county, we will now take each township separately and endeavour to give as full an account of each as we are able. We shall begin with
From the fertility and variety of its soil, this township has justly obtained the name of the garden of Upper Canada. Rivers float along the east and west of the township, & locations for mill-sites, are almost without number. There are already established, and under full and profitable operation in the township 3 grist and 3 saw mills. There are 3 churches, a Presbyterian, an Episcopal, and a Methodist, all having large and respectable congregations. Perhaps there is not another rural township in the Province so well off for school houses, and schools, there are at present 20; of course this leads to the natural consequence, that there is but little intoxication, and of course but poor encouragement for taverns, the township has but one and has no distillery. There are however three waggon factories, fifteen blacksmith shops and thirteen shoemaker shops, in the township.
The growth of timber is various, beach, maple, ash, oak, elm, pine, basswood, cedar, and tamerac, are found in every direction. It is clear from swamp and has no marshes, but there is not a better watered township to be found. Several small rivulets running through in various directions, and through every concession, lime stone is abundant, and there is plenty of clay suitable for bricks.
The settlement of this township began in 1783, the consequence is, that roads are in a tolerable good condition from the front to the rear. Belleville, the district town, is, and ever has been since its settlement, the market place for Sidney, and all sorts of grain, the produce of the township are sold there. Apples, currants, plums, strawberries, raspberries, and a variety of other fruit the product of similar climates are in abundance. The Trent, which will be navigable, passes through a corner of this township, and may be the means of doing the rear some good. Gypsum is found in large quantities in this township.
In the township of Thurlow is situated the district town. It forms parts of lots No. 3, the entire of No. 4, and a portion of No. 5. It name is
It is situated in one of the most delightful neighbourhoods in the Upper Province, and is fast growing into fame and reputation as the outlet for the produce of an immense and fertile back country, thickly settled by enterprising and independent farmers. The Indians who for a long time held possession of this neighbourhood for their hunting grounds, were particularly delighted with it, and Belleville, from the beauty of its situation, lying on two water courses, was always selected as their encamping ground. The bay of Quinte fronts the town, and its banks are thickly settled with opulent farmers, who have become independent by the steady cultivation of a grateful soil. The river Moira flows through the town, and divides east from west Belleville. This valuable stream keeps many factories and mills in operation, and under proper and enterprising management, which it now lacks, would ere long make this town what it is destined ultimately to become, namely, the Birmingham of America. Belleville is a port of entry, and many schooners and other craft are constantly trading to and from this port to the United States. There are 4 wharves on the east side of Belleville, and one on the west, and a good and safe channel for all kinds of craft to enter and moor at either of them. While looking at Belleville as a port of entry, we cannot but anticipate the grateful sight we shall soon experience, of beholding the largest steamboats that navigate our lakes entering our ports from foreign coasts, and landing our goods at our doors in lieu of carrying them to Kingston and other ports. That this will be the case, there can be no doubt as soon as the projected Murray Canal is cut, which will connect the lakes with the waters of the Bay. This is by no means a new scheme: Government, it appears, had an eye to this enterprise, and made a reserve for the purpose. Our assembly have investigated the matter, and there is no doubt but a grant will be made next session for this noble work, more especially as it will cost but few, a very few thousand pounds. That this will be the entrance of the lake Steamboats, there can be no doubt, they will prefer to navigate in safety the waters of our Bay, under shelter of a coast to the wide, the open, and dangerous Lake, and instead of entering at either of the gaps, the one 4, the other 14 miles from Kingston, they will enter at this Canal, and discharge their freight for Belleville, and proceed in safety to their journey's end. It will be easy to extend a public wharf from the Island to the current of the Bay, and to connect the island to east and west Belleville by sound bridges.
But to proceed to what Belleville is while we have the chance, for its change and extension is so constant, that what we endict as sufficient today, will tomorrow prove below the true estimate. There are in Belleville about 380 private dwelling houses, whereof a large number are handsome stone and brick buildings. In addition to these, there are about 50 buildings used exclusively for shops and ware houses. Its population is about 1800, not less. The exports from this place of course vary according to the season, but in general seasons, there are exported from Belleville about 10,000 barrels of flour, about 40,000 bushels of wheat, about 1,500 barrels of potash, besides about 1,000,000 staves, and about 2,000,000 feet of timber. Belleville, both town and country is proverbially healthy.
There is at present one Roman Catholic Church, and the congregation are actively engaged in making preparations to build a large stone one, one Episcopal Church, one Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, one Scotch Presbyterian Church, to all of which there are resident clergymen; in addition to these, there is a large congregation of Episcopal Methodists, and one of the American Presbyterians.
There are four flouring mills inferior to none in either of the Provinces. There is one steam saw mill in full operation, and 4 common saw mills, a paper mill, and axe and scythe factory, one Iron foundry, in which there is a very good steam engine kept at work.
There are 13 taverns for the accommodation of travellers and others. There are two carding and cloth dressing machines, and one patent pail manufactory. There are 8 blacksmith shops and 2 tin smiths.
There are 30 merchants and traders in the town of Belleville, each conducting an extensive business. There are 6 medical gentlemen for the county of Hastings. There are several day and boarding schools. There are also Sunday Schools at the various churches, and out of a juvenile population of 340, there are not more than 50 who do not receive any education at all.
There are three Saddle and Harness factories, one Watchmaker, two Hatters, six Cabinet Makers, two Chair factories, twelve Shoemakers, nine Tailors, two Bakers, three Butchers, and Masons and Carpenters sufficient to carry on the various improvements of the town. There are several Potasheries, seven warehouses for the reception of Goods, fourteen Groceries, two Druggist, three Brewhouses, three Carriage and wagon factories, four Cooper shops, one Distillery, three Tanneries, two Brickyards, and a Lath factory.
There are four Lawyers, two Notaries Public, and an office for the registry of all conveyances relating to lands in this district, and in which are preserved all records made since the first settlement of it as a county. This office serves as an important guide to strangers in ascertaining the validity of the titles they are about to acquire through purchase. And Lastly, there is one Printing office, publishing a Newspaper, which fact, we are sorry to say, does not seem to be too generally known. But we must leave Belleville, and notice the Township of Thurlow, in which it is situated.
In the township exclusive of Belleville, there are fourteen schoolhouses, in which schools are kept and in which Divine Service is frequently performed. There are a great number of Blacksmith and cooper and Shoemaker shops throughout this township, as well as a large number of public houses. There are six Grist Mills, and fourteen Saw Mills, all in full operation, and these exclusive of what are in Belleville. Beach, Maple, Basswood, Elm, Oak and Pine, are the principal kinds of timber in the township, and the soil is a mixture of clay and loam. There is water in abundance throughout the township, and sweet springs are to be met with in every direction. In the 5th and 6th concession there is one small swamp of about 400 acres. The main road to this township is good, but the rear concession roads need repairing. Belleville is the Market town for Thurlow, and Wheat, Rye, Corn, Peas, Barley, Oats and Potashes are raised in abundance, unless the crops are destroyed by the severity of the weather. Apples and pears, as well as plums of all kinds will repay for cultivation. Currants and all kinds of berries are numerous. The principal streams in the township are the Moira, and Bell's creek, which runs through the south east corner of the township, and several other small streams which run into the Moira from various directions. We now come to the Township of
The settlement of this Township began in 1826, and has progressed most rapidly. There is an Episcopal Church, a Catholic Church now building, five places of worship for the Wesleyan Methodists, and four for the Episcopal Methodists. There are ten schools, and this, considering the population is about 700, is certainly a very large number. There is one Grist Mill, three Saw Mills, with two saws each, two Stores, five Taverns, four Blacksmith's shops, two Joiner's shops, two Coopers, one Wheelwright's shop, one Tailor's shop, five Shoemaker's shops, five Weaver's shops, one Chair manufactory, and one Dish Turner.
The Township is generally level with a very rich soil, and Beech, Maple, Basswood and Ash are found throughout the Township in great abundance, White and Yellow Pine are also found in some parts, white Cedar and Elm are very abundant. Perhaps there is not a Township in the Province more kindly watered than Tyendinaga. It has Sucker Creek, Mud Creek, and Salmon River which discharges into the Bay of Quinte, and Bell's Creek, which crosses from the North East, to South West, through the second, third & fourth Concessions, Fisher Creek which rises in the interior, and falls into Salmon river on Lot N. 22 in the second Concession, at which place a Mr. Peck has an excellent Saw Mill. There is also Park's Creek, which runs a westerly course, near the rear of the Township, and falls into the Moira near where the Moira leaves the Township of Tyendinaga, after running across the North West Corner, where it enters Thurlow. We have been particular in mentioning all of these streams, from the important fact of their having seats and water sufficient for machinery of any and every description, that it may be necessary to set in operation, for the benefit of the country, its inhabitants, and the certain remuneration of the enterprising individual or individuals who shall undertake it. All of which cannot fail of rendering Tyendinaga at some future day, a most wealthy portion of the District, and a Township that will most assuredly be resorted to.
There are no swamps or marshes, which are detrimental to Husbandry, the swamps being well timbered, and the marshes easily drained. The finest beds of Blue and Grey Lime stones, that the world produces, are to be found along the banks of the Salmon River, as well as in many other parts of the Township. Clay, suitable both for bricks and pottery, may be found in different parts of the Township.
The four front Concessions are principally settled, and from the front of the fifth concession to the rear of the Township, it is mostly wild. At the south east corner of the Township, on the Bay of Quinte, a Wharf and Store-house owned by Wm. Portt & Co., where in the navigation season, the Steam Boats stop daily, although most of the Commerce of Tyendinaga is carried on directly with Belleville, by land, being only eight miles distant, and good roads. Owing to the short time that the Township has been settled, the roads through the inferior are as yet rather rough, but the road leading east and west of the Township, is a good carriage road, and is the mail route.
A very excellent system for roads has been adopted in this Township, besides a road of one chain in breadth, between every 5th and 6th lot, crossing each other at right angles, leaving the Township in blocks of 1000 acres each, and 1¼ mile square. The usual price for clearing land, here as elsewhere in the District, is from 2 pounds ten shillings, to three pounds ten shillings per acre.
Wheat, Peas, Oats, Pork, Beef and Potash, are the principal articles for market, and for the size of the place and its age, are extensive. Apples, currants, and all kinds of berries are apparently cultivated with great success. It may be as well observed here as elsewhere, that where the land is good, Wheat will yield from 20 to 25 bushels the acre, Peas and Oats about the same quantity, although Oats in some instances will exceed this, Potatoes from 200 to 250 bushels per acre. Ploughing commences about the 20th April, and terminated in September, but of course much depends upon the season for this. Thus having gone through the front range of Townships, we next come to
This Township is the largest in the District. It contains 14 Concessions, each of which has thirty lots. The soil varies very materially. Of the western portion the face is generally level, and the soil good. It produces Wheat, Rye, Corn, Oats, Barley, Peas and Potatoes, in quantity and quality equal to any other portion of the District. But of the Eastern portion, we cannot say as much; it is very hilly and rocky, with a valley of tillable land here and there. The Hills are most red rock, some timbered with hemlock, and others with white pine, while a portion of yellow pine is also to be found. Some of the vallies lying between these hills are cedar swamps, some tamerack, some spruce, and some are firs. The timber in the west side of Hungerford is mostly hard, with the exception of that which is found along the water courses, where there is some pine and hemlock, but it most abounds in Beach, Maple, Basswood, Oak, Ash and Elm.
The principal streams which pass through the Township are, the Schootamota and the Clair River. The Moira enters at No. 1 in the 13th Concession, thence east to No. 4, in the same Concession, thence north through 4 and 5 of the 14th concession, at which point it enters Elziver, and turning short to the south again, enters Hungerford by 7 in the 14th Concession, bearing a south easterly course through No. 7 of the 14th, No. 8 of the 13th, No. 9 of the 12th, No. 10 of the 11th, No. 11 and 12 in the 10th Concession, where it discharges itself into a very handsome Lake, called Stogo Lake. This Lake is about 9 miles long, and in the widest part about a mile and a half. The land round this lake is hard, and lays North East and South West, and contains about fifteen or sixteen hundred acres. The Moira leaves the Lake again, in two branches, which form a large island, called Sugar Island, and it contains about fifteen hundred acres of excellent land. These two branches are known as the North and South branches. The Schootamota enters the Township, a little west of the North East angle of the Township, and bears a south west course through the red rock mills, and discharges in the Moira, in No. 8 in the 13th Concession. The Clair enters the Township a little east of the North East angle of the Township, taking a westerly course, it discharges itself into stogo lake, on Lot No. 16 in the 9th Concession. It is upon these streams and waters, that most of the Lumber which comes from this Township, is sent down the Moira to the Belleville Market. There are many other streams of minor importance running through the Township, which are but of sufficient depth to float staves to the streams already mentioned. In fact, where the Township is settled, which is on the west side, it is well watered with excellent springs and brooks.
The first settlement of this township began in 1828 and was on Sugar Island, and up till now the settlers have been much scattered. As this is a large Township, and but newly settled, the roads are yet rough, but daily improving.
As it is the case with most new settlements, as yet the inhabitants have not been able to erect any place of worship. But the Wesleyan Methodists have the houses, in which there is preaching once a fortnight; and the Roman Catholics are attended by their Priest from Belleville about once in two months. School houses are not yet built, but there are two schools in the township, and indeed it appears to be the desire of all the people in every Township to obtain education for their children if possible. As yet there are but two Mills in operation, a saw mill and a grist mill.
The township has neither Stores nor Taverns, but there are three blacksmith's shops, one waggon maker's shop, and a tannery. Limestone is found in large quantities, and the clay for bricks is very plentiful. Belleville is the nearest market town, and is about 24 miles distant. As in all new settled townships in addition to grain, large quantities of Pot ashes are made and brought to market, and it is expected, that the manufactory will be increased ten-fold, as soon as the Rail Road from Belleville to these back townships shall be in operation. Then the time and expense will be spared to the individual, which he has now to lose in travelling over newly made roads with such a heavy article as pot ashes. It is confidently believed, that a very few years will elapse before this grand scheme of a road from Belleville to Madoc, will be in successful operation. Fruits have not, as yet, been tested in this township, but as the soil is the same as that of Sidney or Thurlow, there can be but very little doubt of its full and complete success. We have next to speak of
In Huntingdon, there are neither churches nor chapels, but divine service is generally performed at private houses, or at the school houses, when the meeting is in the neighborhood where schools can be used. The preachers of the Wesleyan Methodists are the principal ministers who attend in this township to give religious instruction. Occasionally a missionary of the Church will visit the people and perform service. There are at present six schools in operation, and a great deal of benefit derived from them. Two Saw Mills and one Grist Mill is all the mill power in the township at present, but it is expected that others will shortly be set up. There is one store and one tavern, and one victualling house, three Blacksmith shops and Coopers, Shoemakers, and all other trades to carry on the business of a thriving and improving township. The soil is principally of deep rich quality, inclining to clay, and in some places it is very heavy, yet in a few instances a light and sandy soil is found on the tops or ridges, which are quite numerous. There are also ridges of a heavy gravelly soil, all of a good quality, and very heavily covered with timber of all kinds, such as Elm, Maple, Basswood, Beach, Ash, with but little Oak or Pine. The Oak and Pine are chiefly to be found near Hog Lake, and on the Banks of the Moira. To enumerate all the streams of this township would be quite unnecessary, as it is so uncommonly well watered, but we may notice the larger and most conspicuous of them. There is the Moira, Hog Lake, White Lake, and Rawdon Creek. Swamps and marshes are not numerous, and what there are, are connected with the streams and waters above named. It is the opinion of many that ore and minerals of almost every description abound in this township, but the enterprise of the inhabitants leads them to the more certain and less hazardous labour of the cultivation of the soil. Limestone and brown rock are found in almost every direction of the township. Clay, suitable for the manufacture of bricks, may be found in some parts, but the quantity is altogether small, but of that which is adapted for pottery no discovery has yet been made.
The settlement of this township, began about 1827 on the west side, since when it had extended past the centre, and across the township eastward; at present there is but one road which passes through the west side of the township. Belleville is the only market town and shipping port for this township, and is from 16 to 26 miles distant. Munro's Mills are all the mills this township can at present claim, but, as there are others in progress, and as the want of mills has been a serious detriment to the township, it is expected that when the others get into operation, that will mutually facilitate the settling of the township. There is one leading road in the township crossing from West to East. The chief articles of produce of this township are Wheat, Rye, Peas, and all descriptions of grain, and very large quantities are sent to the Belleville market. The soil and climate are favourable for all kinds of fruit that is peculiar to the country, and their cultivation has met with great success. We next turn to notice the township of
The township of Rawdon was first settled about 1797, and has increased at a great rate within the last four years, the soil generally is good. The grounds is loamy and the flats and low land clay and gravel. Grain of all descriptions do well in this township, a large quantity of Potash is made annually in Rawdon, which with the rest of the produce is principally brought to Belleville, being the most ready market for any quantity of Country produce.
There are several large streams in this township, Squires Creek in the north west side of the township, and Salmon Creek on the East side. Crow River passes through the township, and would be a very useful stream if make navigable, but the expense is computed at a very large amount, which produced the proposition of making a Rail Road so as to connect these rear townships with the navigable waters of the Trent. This stream, which passes through Rawdon in a North East direction enters Seymour. There are a great number of Mill sites, which are worthy the attention of those who understand the business of milling and damming. There are two Saw Mills and a very excellent Grist Mill. In the third concession of this township, there is a house of worship. The Baptists hold their meeting there and other denominations and sects use it when they require it. There are some very able farmers in the township of Rawdon, men who have not only improved their lands, but who have also managed to lay up money for a future day.
It may well be observed here as elsewhere, that a concession, means a range of lots, which are numbered from one and upwards. Some have 30 others 37 lots in them. Between the concessions there are roads also between. Each township contains a number of Concessions.
This township was settled in 1821, and now contains a population of nearly 400. The soil is good and in fact very rich, and no failures in agricultural experiments have been seen. Wheat, Barley, Peas, all descriptions of grain are raised in this township, but the principle article of export, is as yet confined to Potash, and this is and will be the case in all newly settled townships. Several orchards are in a thriving condition. The Township is exceedingly well watered and the land lays well for draining. There is a Grist Mill, with one run of stones, and a saw Mill with two saws, another about to be erected. In fact there are Mill sites in every part of the township, which will ultimately insure a great advantage, as this is likely to become an important portion of the County. There is one Catholic church, and a Methodist chapel, also a school house, but as yet there is no teacher.
In Marmora there are beautiful marble quarries, and from this it takes its name. There are also fine beds of various metals. The iron ore beds in this township are very extensive, and lead and silver mines have also been discovered. Marmora has also a large Iron Foundry, which is expected soon to go into operation. The outlet from this township for the heavy articles of exportation such as Iron Castings and Potash is at present difficult in all new townships, the roads are more or less difficult to travel, except in the winter. But as the Trent is to be navigable, a project has been set afloat to connect Marmora with the Navigable waters of the Trent, by Rail Road. It is also in contemplation to cut a canal from the River Trent across Sidney into Belleville, so as to afford the settlers of the back townships a double chance for the sale of their produce, by opening to them the Belleville market, in addition to those which they will have by being able to bring their produce at a reasonable rate down the Trent, for exportation. Another project is also in view to connect Marmora with Belleville. It is in contemplation to construct a Rail Road from Belleville to Madoc, and thence to Marmora. This it is thought will supercede the necessity of cutting a canal across Sidney. For the speedy, easy, and cheap advantages of a Rail Road Conveyance will prove decidedly more advantageous to the farmer and the proprietors of the foundry, than the more tedious and expensive system of exportation by Canals. Marmora together with the adjoining township, Madoc, will prove an immense source of wealth not only to the District, but the whole Province, and we now turn to notice that most valuable of all mineral townships within the Province
There are not any buildings erected for religious worship, nevertheless there is service regularly at school and private houses from the Wesleyan and Episcopal Methodists, and occasionally from Presbyterian and Episcopal Clergymen. It is to be regretted that there are but two school houses, which intimates a bad state of things in a population of almost 600. There is a Saw and flouring mill on lot No. 2 of the 6th concession. They are owned by D. McKenzie, Esq. of Belleville. No Distilleries, no taverns, one store near the above mills. An Iron Foundry in full operation of manufacturing. It is located on lot No. 1 of the 6th concession, and not more than 30 rods from the township of Huntingdon, the ore melted at these works is the magnetic oxide and is extremely rich in iron, it is in fact the best iron that the world has yet produced. It is as pliable in the pig as the best Swedish bar Iron. We can assert this for a fact, for we have seen it and have the Iron in our possession. Already the inhabitants are beginning to feel the salutary influence of this establishment, as it not only affords ample employment to those not otherwise engaged, but a ready market to the farmer for his surplus produce.
The ore is on No. 11, 5th con. and is very abundant; is in a vein about 30 feet across and rises to the surface, it has been traced about half a mile.
The timber here is Elm, Maple, Basswood, Birch, Beech, Iron wood, some very extensive groves of Pine and a little Hemlock, it is very tall and straight. The soil is generally a sandy loam of a dark brown colour resting generally on a clay found 6 to 12 inches below the surface. The face of the country is not hilly but rather rolling or undulating, abounding with never failing springs of the purest water. It is difficult to determine what fruits would best succeed, from the trial made it is known that Apples, Plums, Cherries, Currants and Grapes, will do well. Wheat succeeds well, average crop of which is about 20 bushels, Barley, Oats and Rye yield abundant crops, if well got in, Peas do as well here as in any part of the country, and the potato crop is equal to any.
The first inhabitants moved here in 1820. The township until lately has been slow settling in consequence of facilities with which lands could be obtained nearer the bay, and it is only within the last two years that the public attention has been directed to this township. The river Moira is on the north, west and south, affording some of the finest hydraulic privileges in the province. Otter, Deer, Spring Pickeral and Black Creeks, afford an abundance of water at all seasons for grinding and sawing, the Mills and Iron works before noticed are on the Creek. From the abundance of Lime and Sulphur which are met with in every part of the township there is Gypsum in abundance.
There are extensive beds of Marble, grey, white and drab coloured, old red Sand Stone, granite, Gneiss, Mica and Clay Slate, the Mica Slate and Gneiss are generally vertically stratified and are or appear to have been superincumbent on the granite, some of the granular lime stone are also in vertical strata. We find a description of lava and the peculiar oxide of Iron, these together with the pudding like appearance of some of the rocks, the shattered condition of others and a thousand other striking indications, leave but little room for doubt that this region of the country was at some remote period of time extensively visited by Earthquakes and volcanoes.
The area of the township is between of 60 and 70 thousand acres, 50 thousand of which are of the best quality and cannot be surpassed in richness of soil by any in the province.
The wild lands are Clergy Reserves, Canada company, and individual lands. Two companies of provincial troops have been paid their lands and many have been paid their lands and many U.E. rights located, which has absorbed all the Crown Lands. The average price of wild lands is about seven shillings and six pence, some sales have been effected at 12s. 6d. and some as low as 5s. which is the minimum price of the Clergy Reserves.
The nearest and only market town and shipping port is Belleville which is 25 miles distant from the mills before mentioned.
Roads generally are in a bad condition as might be expected in a thinly populated towns that is settling rapidly, & where the statute labour is scarcely sufficient to open, much less to put them in a good state to travel on.
The produce of the township is Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Peas, hay and Potatoes which have not as yet been more than enough for the home consumption, but there is probably a greater quantity of Potash made here for exportation than in any other township in the district.
Is a township as yet unsettled, it is therefore entirely unnecessary to mention anything about it. There is also another tier of townships in the rear of Marmora, Madoc, and Elziver, which in time will be brought into requisition, for now it is unnecessary to say ought about them.
The County of Hastings has a population of nearly 12,000 souls, having doubled in five years. There are about 4500 horses, and about 6000 horned cattle in the County. As yet sheep are not generally attended to, but there is little doubt but that a few years more will find many of our farmers turning their attention to grazing. As a general rule for the produce of the soil, it may be stated that Wheat will yield about 25 bushels to the acre, oats from 30 to 40 bushels, barley is not extensively cultivated, though what it has been attended to, it has thriven wonderfully well. Potatoes will yield about 500 bushels to the acre. And we may observe, for the information of those in other countries, that in the spring of the year a good chance is offered to the farmer to make that necessary domestic luxury, sugar. By tapping the maple tree juice is obtained, which by boiling down is made into sugar equally as valuable, and more palatable for every use, except when used in tea or coffee, when it is equal to the muscovado sugar. There are many of our farmers who make from 3 to 400 cwt. of this sugar yearly.
Thus we have endeavoured, with the assistance which others have afforded us, to lay a detailed statistical account of the County of Hastings before the public, and trust that it will be the means of drawing the attention of the Emigrants to a section of the Province, hitherto slighted and disregarded.